Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2020
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The Company’s significant accounting policies are described in Note 3 of the Notes to Financial Statements in the Annual Report on Form 10‑K for the year ended June 30, 2019.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates include the valuation of intellectual property, legal and contractual contingencies and share-based compensation. Although management bases its estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, actual results could differ from these estimates.
Accounts receivable are reported at their outstanding unpaid principal balances net of allowances for uncollectible accounts. The Company provides for allowances for uncollectible receivables based on management's estimate of uncollectible amounts considering age, collection history, and any other factors considered appropriate. The Company writes off accounts receivable against the allowance for doubtful accounts when a balance is determined to be uncollectible. At March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2019, the Company determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts was not needed.
The Company accounts for its revenue recognition under Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)" ("ASU 2014-09") and other associated standards. Under this new standard, the Company recognizes revenue when a customer obtains control of promised services or goods in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. Contract liabilities represent billings to a customer for whom the services have not yet been provided.
The Company’s contract revenues consist primarily of amounts earned under contracts with third-party customers and reimbursed expenses under such contracts. The Company analyzes its agreements to determine whether the elements can be separated and accounted for individually or as a single unit of accounting. Allocation of revenue to individual elements that qualify for separate accounting is based on the separate selling prices determined for each component, and total contract consideration is then allocated pro rata across the components of the arrangement. If separate selling prices are not available, the Company will use its best estimate of such selling prices, consistent with the overall pricing strategy and after consideration of relevant market factors.
In general, the Company applies the following steps when recognizing revenue from contracts with customers: (i) identify the contract, (ii) identify the performance obligations, (iii) determine the transaction price, (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations and (v) recognize revenue when a performance obligation is satisfied. The nature of the Company’s contracts with customers generally fall within the three key elements of the Company’s business plan: CDMO Facility Activities; Product Candidate Pipeline, and Facility Design and Build-out / Technology Transfer services.
Recognition of revenue is driven by satisfaction of the performance obligations using one of two methods: revenue is either recognized over time or at a point in time. Contracts containing multiple performance obligations classify those performance obligations into separate units of accounting either as standalone or combined units of accounting. For those performance obligations treated as a standalone unit of accounting, revenue is generally recognized based on the method appropriate for each standalone unit. For those performance obligations treated as a combined unit of accounting, revenue is generally recognized as the performance obligations are satisfied, which generally occurs when control of the goods or services have been transferred to the customer or client or once the client or customer is able to direct the use of those goods and/ or services as well as obtaining substantially all of its benefits. As such, revenue for a combined unit of accounting is generally recognized based on the method appropriate for the last delivered item but due to the specific nature of certain project and contract items, management may determine an alternative revenue recognition method as appropriate, such as a contract whereby one deliverable in the arrangement clearly comprises the overwhelming majority of the value of the overall combined unit of accounting. Under this circumstance, management may determine revenue recognition for the combined unit of accounting based on the revenue recognition guidance otherwise applicable to the predominant deliverable.
The Company generates (or may generate in the future) contract revenue under the following types of contracts:
Under a fixed-fee contract, the Company charges a fixed agreed upon amount for a deliverable. Fixed-fee contracts have fixed deliverables upon completion of the project. Typically, the Company recognizes revenue for fixed-fee contracts after projects are completed, delivery is made and title transfers to the customer, and collection is reasonably assured.
Time and Materials
Under a time and materials contract, the Company charges customers an hourly rate plus reimbursement for other project specific costs. The Company recognizes revenue for time and material contracts based on the number of hours devoted to the project multiplied by the customer’s billing rate plus other project specific costs incurred.
Grants are recognized as income when all conditions of such grants are fulfilled or there is a reasonable assurance that they will be fulfilled. Grant income is classified as a reduction of research and development expenses. There was no grant income in Fiscal 2020. Grant income amounted to approximately $0 and $37,000 for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2019.
A contract asset is an entity’s right to payment for goods and services already transferred to a customer if that right to payment is conditional on something other than the passage of time. Generally, an entity will recognize a contract asset when it has fulfilled a contract obligation but must perform other obligations before being entitled to payment.
Contract assets consist primarily of the cost of project contract work performed by third parties whereby the Company expects to recognize any related revenue at a later date, upon satisfaction of the contract obligations. At both March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2019, contract assets were $0.
A contract liability is an entity’s obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer at the earlier of (1) when the customer prepays consideration or (2) the time that the customer’s consideration is due for goods and services the entity will yet provide. Generally, an entity will recognize a contract liability when it receives a prepayment.
Contract liabilities consist primarily of consideration received, usually in the form of payment, on project work to be performed whereby the Company expects to recognize any related revenue at a later date, upon satisfaction of the contract obligations. Contract liabilities may also be described as deferred revenue. At March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2019, contract liabilities (or deferred revenue) were $3,006,000 and $1,279,000, respectively. The Company recognized revenue of $75,000 and $193,000 during the three and nine months ended March 31, 2020, respectively, that was included in the contract liabilities balance as of June 30, 2019.
Effective July 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (“ASU 2016-02”) (“ASC 842”) and other associated standards using the modified retrospective approach for all leases entered into before the effective date. The new standard establishes a right-of-use ("ROU") model requiring a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months and classified as either an operating or finance lease. The adoption of ASC 842 had a significant effect on our balance sheet resulting in an increase in non-current assets and both current and non-current liabilities. The adoption of ASC 842 had no impact on retained earnings as the assets recognized under the Sublease and the associated lease obligation were accounted for as a capital lease under Topic 840. We did not have any operating leases, therefore there was no change in accounting treatment required. For comparability purposes, the Company will continue to comply with prior disclosure requirements in accordance with the then existing lease guidance under Topic 840 as prior periods have not been restated.
As the Company elected to adopt ASC 842 at the beginning of the period of adoption, the Company recorded the ROU and finance lease obligation as follows:
The Company elected the package of practical expedients as permitted under the transition guidance, which allowed us: (1) to carry forward the historical lease classification; (2) not to reassess whether expired or existing contracts are or contain leases; and, (3) not to reassess the treatment of initial direct costs for existing leases.
In accordance with ASC 842, at the inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease based on the unique facts and circumstances present and the classification of the lease including whether the contract involves the use of a distinct identified asset, whether we obtain the right to substantially all the economic benefit from the use of the asset, and whether we have the right to direct the use of the asset. Leases with a term greater than one year are recognized on the balance sheet as ROU assets, lease liabilities and, if applicable, long-term lease liabilities. The Company has elected not to recognize on the balance sheet leases with terms of one year or less under practical expedient in paragraph ASC 842-20-25-2. For contracts with lease and non-lease components, the Company has elected not to allocate the contract consideration and to account for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.
The lease liability and the corresponding ROU assets were recorded based on the present value of lease payments over the expected remaining lease term. The implicit rate within our capital lease was determinable and, therefore, used at the adoption date of ASC 842 to determine the present value of lease payments under the finance lease.
An option to extend the lease is considered in connection with determining the ROU asset and lease liability when it is reasonably certain we will exercise that option. An option to terminate is considered unless it is reasonably certain we will not exercise the option.
For periods prior to the adoption of ASC 842, the Company recorded interest expense based on the amortization of the capital lease obligation. The expense recognition for finance leases under Topic 842 is substantially consistent with prior guidance for capital leases. As a result, there are no significant differences in our results of operations presented.
The impact of the adoption of ASC 842 on the balance sheet was (in thousands):
The impact of the adoption of ASC 842 on the Statement of Operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 was (in thousands):
The impact of the adoption of ASC 842 on the Statement of Operations for the nine months ended March 31, 2020 was (in thousands):
Research and Development
The Company accounts for research and development costs in accordance with the FASB ASC 730‑10, “Research and Development” (“ASC 730‑10”). Under ASC 730‑10, all research and development costs must be charged to expense as incurred. Accordingly, internal research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Third-party research and development costs are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or as milestone results have been achieved.
Assets held under the terms of finance (capital) leases are amortized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the leases or the economic lives of the assets. Obligations for future lease payments under finance (capital) leases are shown within liabilities and are analyzed between amounts falling due within and after one year. See Note 10 - Finance Lease Obligation for additional information.
Fixed assets are stated at cost net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets ranging from three to fifteen years.
The Company accounts for intangible assets at their historical cost and records amortization utilizing the straight-line method based upon their estimated useful lives. Patents are amortized over a period of 10 years and other intellectual property is amortized over a period from 16 to 23 years. The Company reviews the carrying value of its intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate the carrying amount of such assets may not be fully recoverable. Evaluating for impairment requires judgment, and recoverability is assessed by comparing the projected undiscounted net cash flows of the assets over the remaining useful life to the carrying amount. Impairments, if any, are based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the assets. There were no impairment charges for the nine months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.
The Company accounts for foreign currency translation pursuant to FASB ASC 830, "Foreign Currency Matters." The functional currency of iBio Brazil is the Brazilian Real. Under FASB ASC 830, all assets and liabilities are translated into United States dollars using the current exchange rate at the end of each fiscal period. Revenues and expenses are translated using the average exchange rates prevailing throughout the respective periods. All transaction gains and losses from the measurement of monetary balance sheet items denominated in Reals are reflected in the statement of operations as appropriate. Translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss. For the three and nine months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, any translation adjustments were considered immaterial and did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The Company recognizes the cost of all share-based payment transactions at fair value. Compensation cost, measured by the fair value of the equity instruments issued, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, is recognized in the financial statements as the respective awards are earned over the performance period. The Company uses historical data to estimate forfeiture rates.
The impact that share-based payment awards will have on the Company’s results of operations is a function of the number of shares awarded, the trading price of the Company’s stock at the date of grant or modification, the vesting schedule and forfeitures. Furthermore, the application of the Black-Scholes option pricing model employs weighted-average assumptions for expected volatility of the Company’s stock, expected term until exercise of the options, the risk-free interest rate, and dividends, if any, to determine fair value.
Expected volatility is based on historical volatility of the Company’s common stock; the expected term until exercise represents the weighted-average period of time that options granted are expected to be outstanding giving consideration to vesting schedules and the Company’s historical exercise patterns; and the risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for periods corresponding with the expected life of the option. The Company has not paid any dividends since its inception and does not anticipate paying any dividends for the foreseeable future, so the dividend yield is assumed to be zero. In addition, the Company estimates forfeitures at each reporting period, rather than electing to record the impact of such forfeitures as they occur. See Note 13 - Shared-Based Compensation for additional information.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU No. 2016-13, "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments" ("ASU 2016-13"), which requires an entity to assess impairment of its financial instruments based on its estimate of expected credit losses. Since the issuance of ASU 2016-13, the FASB released several amendments to improve and clarify the implementation guidance. The provisions of ASU 2016-13 and the related amendments are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019 (quarter ended September 30, 2020 for the Company). Entities are required to apply these changes through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. We are currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-13 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Effective July 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2017-09, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting” (“ASU 2017-09”) which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. The adoption of ASU 2017-09 did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Effective April 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2017-11, “Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815)” (“ASU 2017-11”). The amendments in Part I of ASU 2017-11 change the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments (or embedded features) with down round features. When determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, a down round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock. The amendments also clarify existing disclosure requirements for equity-classified instruments. As a result, a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded conversion option) no longer would be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value as a result of the existence of a down round feature. For freestanding equity classified financial instruments, the amendments require entities that present earnings per share (“EPS”) in accordance with ASC 260 to recognize the effect of the down round feature when it is triggered. That effect is treated as a dividend and as a reduction of income available to common shareholders in basic EPS. Convertible instruments with embedded conversion options that have down round features are now subject to the specialized guidance for contingent beneficial conversion features (in ASC 470-20, “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options”), including related EPS guidance (in ASC 260). The amendments in Part II of ASU 2017-11 recharacterize the indefinite deferral of certain provisions of ASC 480 that now are presented as pending content in the codification, to a scope exception. Those amendments do not have an accounting effect. As a result of the adoption of ASU 2017-11, the Company classified the proceeds received from the sale of its preferred stock as equity (see Note 11 - Stockholders' Equity).
Effective July 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU No. 2018-07, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting” (“ASU 2018-07”). ASU No 2018-07 expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. The guidance also specifies that Topic 718 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which a grantor acquires goods or services to be used or consumed in a grantor’s own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, "Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes" ("ASU 2019-12") to reduce the cost and complexity in accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period, and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. ASU 2019-12 also amends other aspects of the guidance to help simplify and promote consistent application of U.S. GAAP. The guidance is effective for fiscal years and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020 (quarter ended September 30, 2021 for the Company), with early adoption permitted. An entity that elects early adoption must adopt all the amendments in the same period. Most amendments within ASU 2019-12 are required to be applied on a prospective basis, while certain amendments must be applied on a retrospective or modified retrospective basis. We are currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2019-12 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standard if currently adopted would have a material effect on the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements. Most of the newer standards issued represent technical corrections to the accounting literature or application to specific industries which have no effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef